An important period in carpet weaving is during the reign of the Sassanian dynasty and too many magnificent carpets were exported to distant lands in Iran. From that time this art went through other dynasties with some Fluctuations. Whatever is known of the origins of the pile rug is based on suppositions but the can assume that pile weaving had a nomadic origin although there are some beliefs and sayings about where really the origin is.
The Art of carpet weaving during Safavid Period
Iranian master pieces were known all are the world, during this Period. This simple and rustic profession changed in to the elegant Technique of carpet weaving, and the main categories of carpets classified by their design.
Vase design is one of the techniques which used at that period and this design dates back to 16th century and is woven in one direction. It can be viewed from the opposite directions and the design appears inverted. The field usually contains a vase and a bunch of flowers.
Tree and Shrub Design:
This design is a combination of the “medallion” pattern with figures of animals and trees. Exquisite sample and kept in the Museum of Philadelphia.
It takes its name from the city of Harat It is combined of a single floral head, within a diamond frames. One of these carpets is kept in the Museum of Vienna.
This kind of design is based on the formal gardens of ancient Persia and their abundance of flora separated by pathways and ornamental ponds. And they were woven for the royal courts.
Hunting Scenery Design:
Its carpets usually show the scenes of hunting and its nature. This design depicts the animals and the preys which they pursue in the various plant lives, the fine stone is kept in the Vienna Museum.
The Art of Carpets Weaving in the Period of 1722-1925:
There was a decline in carpet weaving in this period because of Afghan revolts and the death of Shah Abbas the Great. Unfortunately, this art lost its splendor during the reign of Nader Shah and Karimkan-e- Zand, but suddenly at the end of Ghajarieh period, again this can was flourished. Collecting Persian carpet and especially the old one was interesting for Iranian people, and the Persian carpets regained their fame all around the world. Many Europeans established branches and factories in the regional weaving centers to produce and export large quantities of carpets to different parts of the world.
Wool: Sheep wool is one of the basic elements in the carpet weaving.
Down (kork): It refers to the soft wool that grows close to the skin of sheep and goats
Cotton: It has an important role in carpet industry and is used to weave the wrap and the weft of the carpets
Silk: It is produced by the larva of a species of moth, called the silkworm. Silk carpets are so expensive and stronger than wool ones. Because it is difficult to weave them, they are delicate and expensive.
Dyeing: It plays an important role; since without colors, no design can be created.
Natural dyes: Although many of them were obtained from animal and mineral sources, they are often referred to as vegetable dyes, which come from natural sources and environments.
Mordents: They are used to improve the absorption of color by the outer surface of the wool and ensure the fastness of the colors when exposed to sunlight and water.
Synthetic dyes: They came into existence with the expansion of carpet industries.
Classification of Iranian Carpet:
Rural and Urban Carpets, Weaving Looms and Vertical Looms